Yeltsin opened the files in 1992. The first American who got full access was Harvey Klehr. Here, in 2003, we discuss with him the evidence of Soviet penetration of the American government and its full management of the American Communist party. This is not loose “McCarthyism” but, rather, effective if delayed counterespionage. Of special interest is the way In which American historians turned blind eyes until Klehr’s book appeared.